What is an academic or scientific work?
At the University it is through carrying out personal work that a rigorous scientific and academic working method is developed.
Thus within the work it will be necessary to demonstrate :
- Research and the selection and use of valid and identifiable resources
- A connection with recognized academic and scientific works/authors
- Organised thinking, conceptualisation and a personal contribution
- Rigorous methodology
- The ability to summarise
- A mastery of written discourse (written work) and oral discourse (a presentation and defence of the work)
- A critical spirit
- Neutrality and objectivity
- The ability to look at the work with detachment and self-criticism
- Intellectual honesty...
Academic and scientific discourse inevitably leans on written and iconographic sources and the work of other authors. It is thus perfectly natural and encouraged to be inspired by them and to include within your own work elements of a text written by another person, as long as it does not involve an act of plagiarism. Therefore, all the sources used must be cited.
Bear in mind that academic work mustn't be limited to a series of quotations, even if they are correct (unless otherwise explicitly stated in certain specific cases) : the teacher expects a personal contribution.